Vector addition ans scaling

The vector v, w being multiplied by 2.

Scalar multiplication simply refers to multiplying a vector by a scalar (as opposed to multiplying a vector by a vector, which yields either the dot or cross product). This can be done by distributing each component of the vector by the scalar. For example:

a(x\mathbf{\hat{i}}, y\mathbf{\hat{j}}, z\mathbf{\hat{k}}) = ax\mathbf{\hat{i}}, ay\mathbf{\hat{j}}, az\mathbf{\hat{k}}

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