A **mathematical object** is, loosely speaking, anything you can "do mathematics on". More formally, it is an object that has a definition, obeys certain properties, and can be the target of certain operations.

For example, consider the mathematical object called a complex number:

- Definition:
- A
*complex number*is any number that can be written in the form , where and are real numbers and the entity is an imaginary number, for which the imaginary unit .

- A
- Example property:
- If , then is a real number.

- Example operation:
- Multiplication:

Note that one mathematical object can be defined in terms of other mathematical objects. In fact, apart from a small number of undefined objects, the existence of which is simply assumed, all mathematical objects are defined in terms of others.

The various areas of mathematics (or mathematical school subjects) can be organized by the type of mathematical object they primarily concentrate on.

Object | Subjects or areas of mathematics |
---|---|

Number | Arithmetic, number theory |

Variable | Elementary algebra |

Function | Intermediate algebra, precalculus, calculus (and higher forms of analysis) |

Algebraic structure | Abstract algebra |

... | ... |