Implicit differentiation is the process of deriving an equation without isolating y. It is used generally when it is difficult or impossible to solve for y. This is done by simply taking the derivative of every term in the equation ().
Note that because of the chain rule. From here, can be solved for as if it were a variable:
This usually results in an answer that has both x and y in the formula.
In order to take a second derivative () while differentiating implicitly, you take a derivative of the derivative:
we use the quotient rule on x and y to find .
Then we can plug in for , since we have that from above,
Now, substituting the original equation