Greek alphabet is used extensively in mathematics and the physical sciences to stand for well known constants, variables, functions, and so forth. Because many of the uppercase (or capital, or majuscule) Greek letters are indistinguishable from their counterparts in the Latin alphabet, only uses that are specifically interpreted as Greek letters should be listed below.
any angle, reference angle, direction angle ( x-axis), significance level ( probability of a type I error); sometimes: proportional to
Beta function, Beta distribution
any angle, direction angle ( y-axis), probability of a type II error, beta distribution, regression coefficient
Gamma function, Gamma distribution
any angle, direction angle ( z-axis), Euler's constant, gamma distribution
any change in a quantity
Kronecker's delta, Dirac delta function, infinitesimal change
any positive quantity (especially a very small one)
Riemann zeta function
curvature of a function
( Physics) Half-life, (physics) wave-length, ( differential equations) zeros of a characteristic equation, ( linear algebra) eigenvalues, (probability) parameter in the Poisson distribution, Lambda Calculus
( statistics) population mean, ( mensuration) SI prefix "micro-"
Riemann Xi Function
product operator, ( ) Coproduct operator
Pi (constant), the ratio between a circle's diameter and circumference approximately , Prime counting function
Degree of a vertex, radius in spherical coordinates, radius of curvature of a function
Torsion of a curve, suggested as a constant representing the ratio between a circle's radius and circumference, equal to 2π
φ ( ), angle between z-axis and radius in spherical coordinates
(statistics) Chi-squared test
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